Inspired by nature water-repellency
has received much attention and has been well documented during the last
decades. Mimicking bio-inspired surface topology of living organisms such as leaf
surface of Lotus,1 wing
surface of Cicada orni,2
legs of water strider,3 and backs of desert beetle 4 opened new approaches
in the design and fabrication of various novel superhydrophobic interfacial materials.
(put some reviews)

Recently, the discovery of interesting
phenonmenon of underwater self-cleaning fish skin and clamshells,
drew considerable attention to the underwater oil repellent membranes. However,
fabricating superoleophobic surfaces is very challenging. Traditional methods
for creation superolephobic surfaces with high oil contact angle and low
hysteresis are highly rely on utilizing fluorinated compounds9-11. However, Further
studies on fish scales showed that similar to the mechanism that was
well-established14 to explain the super-wetting behavior in air, here also geometric structure and chemical composition of the
surface play the main roles in generating underwater superoleophobicity
simultaneously.

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In fact, underwater
superoleophobicity is a result of water penetration into the hydrophilic
surface structure of the scales, which is made of calcium phosphate and
protein, and formation of a third repulsive liquid phase. Furthermore, the
presence of a thin layer of mucus on the skin surface of fish creates a
micro/nano hierarchical roughness and, thus, decrease contact or adhesion of
low surface tension liquid such as oil on the surface of the membrane 4,9,13. Further
exploration of these new types of high-energy surfaces may provide a solution
to resist oil contamination of metal ships and other aquatic equipment, even to
assist in coping with serious oil-spill crises.

For
the first time, Liu (2009) introduced wetting/antiwetting behavior of oil
droplets on the surface of fish skin in water. Influenced by that, they
proposed a novel fluoride-free strategy to create a low-adhesive and underwater
superoleophobic interface.

In
this review paper, the principles and background of underwater superoleophobic
materials, state of the art including design, fabrication, and
characterization, and, outlook of these materials and are discussed.

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