An binary 1 0. The next 14 bits complete

An IP
address is a random unique numerical number which is used to identify a
computer onto a network. There can be two kinds of IP address a private IP and
a public IP address. Public IP addresses are assigned by the Internet Assigned
Numbers Authority. When someone connects to a Wi-Fi network, the DHCP running
on the router being used assigns a local IP address e.g.192.168.1. 2. This IP
address can the uniquely identifies your computer out of the other devices on
the network.

The MAC
address is a unique identifier for communications at the data link layer of a
network segment. This uses a network address for IEEE 802 network technologies,
which include Ethernet, Wi-Fi. MAC addresses are used in media access control
protocols sublayer of an OSI reference model. The most often assignment of MAC
addresses is given by the manufacturer of a network interface controller and
are stored in its hardware, e.g. a cards read-only memory or can be in some
other firmware mechanisms.

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AIPA
stands for Automatic Private IP Addressing it is known as the DHCP mechanism
for the IPv4 network. With an APIPA, clients can get an IP address when the
DHCP severs are not running properly. The APIPIA is always present in every
versions of Windows 10, this works by coming into effect when DHCP procedure
fails, the operating system finds the IP address from a range of IP address.
The APIPA is unique to the network before it starts operating.

There
are several types of class address from A to E. The classes were assigned by
IEEE to meet the needs of different types of networks. There are 5 different
classes but only the first 3 are allowed on identify workstations, switch
routers, classes A, B and C all can be used for host IP addresses.

Class A
addresses are made for and assigned to networks with a large number of hosts.
The high-order bit in class A address is always set to zero, the next 7 bits
complete the networks ID and the remaining 24 bits is the host ID. This allow s
126 networks and 19’777’214 hosts per a network.

Class B
addresses are made for and assigned to medium-sized to large networks. The two
high-order bits in class B address is always set to binary 1 0. The next 14
bits complete the network ID. The remaining 16 bits represent the host ID. This
allows for 16,384 networks and 65,534 hosts per network.

Class C
addresses are made for and assigned to small networks. The three high-order
bits in a class C address are always set to binary 1 1 0. The next 21 bits
complete the network and the spare 8 bits are the host ID which allows 2,097152
networks and 254 per network.

Class D
addresses a specifically reserved for IP multicast addresses. The four
high-order bits in a D class address are always set as binary 1 1 1 0. The
remaining are for the address that interested hosts recognize. Microsoft can
support D class addresses.

Class E
is a new experimental address which is reserved for its future use. The
high-order bits in the E class address are set to 1 1 1 1.

Classless
Addressing removes class boundaries to help release wasted addresses from the
class/network/node convention. There are 2 groups of bits, they both have
variable lengths. The first the network prefix, which identifies one or more
network gateways. The second is the host.

A
private addressing method is a private internet address which is assigned by
the Network Information Centre (InterNIC) to an organisation so that they can
create their own private network. Devices used in the home on your own network
like, printers, mobiles, laptops, tablets all have private IP addresses. No
device outside of the network can directly connect if the network is secure or
without a network address translator. Computers on private networks within
organisations will usually have a private IP address.

An OSI
defines a networking framework to implement protocols in seven layers, this
model doesn’t perform any functions in the networking process, and this is
because it’s a conceptual framework so we can have a better understanding
complex interactions that are happening. A TCP/IP is the language the computer
uses to access the internet. The model is built a suite of protocols which were
established for a network of networks which provide a host with access to the
internet.This is responsible for a full-fledged data connectivity and
transmitting the data end-to-end by providing other functions, these include
addressing, mapping and acknowledgement, A TCP/IP contains four layers, and
these all slightly differ from each other. Ethernet network protocol controls
how the data is sent over a LAN. This is referred to as the IEEE 802.2
protocol, it has evolved/ been improved over time and can now deliver at the
speed of one gigabit per second (One million kbps). Ethernet net is usually
used in a home, bank or office as Ethernet LAN. Most laptops or desktops come
with an Ethernet card already inside so it can be connected to an Ethernet LAN.
IP stands internet protocol, this is the principal communications protocol in
the internet protocols, for relaying datagrams across network boundaries. The
routing function enables internetworking/ establishes the internet. The
function of the IP is to address hosts, capturing data into datagrams, routing
the datagrams from the source destination to the host destination across one or
more IP network. The IP defines the format of packets and provides an
addressing system. TCP stands for transmission control protocol, it is the
standard that defines how to establish and maintain network conversations via
what application programs can change data, this works with the IP to define how
to computers send packets of data between each other. TCP and IP are the two
basic rules that define the internet. UDP stands for User Datagram Protocol is
one of the core members of the internet protocols suite. The USP uses
connectionless communication models with a minimum of protocol mechanism. UDP
provides checksums for data integrity. They port numbers which are for
addressing different functions at the source and destination of the datagram. A
UDP is suitable for purpose where error checking and correction are wither not
necessary or are performed in an application. FTP stands for File Transfer
Protocol and is the standard network protocol, this is used for the transfer of
computer files between a client and server on the computer network. FTP is
built on a client-server model and uses separate control and data connections
between the client and the server. An FTP users may authenticate themselves
using a clear-text sign in protocol, this would be in the form of a user name
or password. SMTP stands for Simple mail transfer protocol which is the
standard protocol for the email services on a TCP/IP network. SMTP has the
ability to send or receive email messages. SMTP is an application- layer
protocols which enables the transmission and delivery of emails over the
internet. The OSI is more advanced than the TCP/IP and is more powerful when
being run.

The
different network topologies are, Bus, Rings, Star, Backbones, Segments,
Wireless and Mesh. A bus network is a network topology in which the nodes are
connected to a linear half-duplex link called a bus. The host of a bus network
is call the workstation or station. In a bus network each station will get all
the network traffic, and the traffic generated by each section has equal
transmission priority. A bus forms a single collision domain and network
segment. In order for the nodes to transmit on the bus at the same time, they
also use a media access control technology such as a bus master or a carrier
sense multiple access (CSMA). A ring network is a network topology in which
each node connects directly to another node, this form a continuous pathway
between the nodes for signals to travel through each node. The data travels
from node to node where each node tackles a different packet. A ring can be
unidirectional, with traffic traveling rather anti-clockwise or clockwise, they
can also be bidirectional (SONET/SDH) where traffic goes both directions around
the ring.  A star topology is a topology
used for a (LAN) Local Area Network in which all nodes are connected to a
central connection point individually, like a switch or hub. A star takes more
cable than a bus, however the benefit is that if one cable fails only one node
will be brought down. All traffic comes from the hub of the star. The central
site is in control of all the nodes which are attached to it. A backbone is a
part of a computer network which interconnects with different pieces of
network, providing a path for the exchange of information between different
LANs or sub networks.  A backbone ties
together diverse networks e.g. in different buildings around a campus or over
wide areas. A backbone has a much bigger capacity and is greater than the
networks connected to it. A distributed backbone is a network consists of
different connectivity devices which connect as a series of central
connectivity devices like switches, hubs, or routers. This kind of topology
allows for simple expansions and limited capital outlay for growth.  A collapsed backbone is a type of backbone
architecture, each hub provides a different link back to a location to be
connected to a backbone-in-a-box, and this box can be a router or a switch. The
topology of a clasped backbone can be known as a star or rooted tree. The
advantages of this are: its ease of management since the backbone is in a
single location and has a single box, and since the backbone is the back plane/
internal switching matrix of the box. 
The disadvantages of this are: if the box housing the backbone is down
or there is bad reachability problem then network will crash. A parallel
backbone is a collection of different types of backbone which are used for an
enterprise wide network. If an organisation is looking for a strong trusting
backbone they should chose a parallel backbone. A parallel backbones are more
expensive than other backbone networks due to the extensive cables needed
compared to the other backbones. An advantage of this is there never going to
be a break in the sever. A serial backbone is the simplest kind of network,
this consist of two or more internets devices working together and connecting
to each over via a single cable in a “daisy-chain” fashion. A daisy chain is a
group of devices connected together in a serial fashion. The hubs are often
connected in this way as well. Gateways, switches, bridges and routers commonly
form the part of a backbone. A network segment is a part of a computer network
which is separated from the rest of the network by a device such as a repeater,
router, switch, bridge or hub. Each segment holds multiple or one computer or
has other hosts. The segmentation differs according to the type of device used
e.g. a router separates collision domains and broadcast domains while a bridge
separates just the collision domains. Each network segment supports a single
medium access protocol and a predetermined bandwidth. The bandwidth gets more
divided as there is more hosts on a network segment. Overcrowding of a segment
leads to the condition known as congestion, which results in a downgraded
performance on the network. A wireless topology is a logical topology, this
shows how the computers connect and work together when there isn’t a physical
connection connected and no cables connected, these computers use a wireless
device to directly talk to each other, they have an infrastructure or ad hoc
topology. There are two types of mesh networks, these networks are:

Total Mesh-
Total mesh is where every node into a network were the network is connected
directly to all the other nodes. If one connection breaks wall the traffic can
get there another way.

Partial
Mesh – This is like a total mesh however, not all the nodes are connected so
this means the re-routing options are smaller, however it is cheaper than a
total mesh as there’s less cables needed.

Security mechanisms include Physical Security, Authentication,
Authorization, Packet Fillers, Firewalls, Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems.
Physical Security- This way of security refers to maintaining the amount of
access to key/important network resources by keeping important information
behind lock doors, keeping them protected from natural and human-made
disasters/ accidents. Physical security can stop the misuse of network
equipment by employees which are untrained or have less knowledge, as well as
protecting it from hackers, terrorists or competitors changing configuration
codes. Depending on what the information is depends on the amount of
information is needed, higher level protection can protect networks from
biohazard events e.g. bombs or radioactive leaks. They can also be protected
from natural hazards such as earthquakes and flooding. Physical protection
should protect things such as, cabling, modems, hosts, severs and backups etc.
A room protect a network should be planned to have, fire alarm, unlimited power
source, fire-abatement mechanism’s and water removal equipment. As physical
security is an obvious choice, it’s not easy to forget to plan. Authentication-
This shows who is requesting access to the network, this can be in the form of
a login ID and password allowing the users access if it’s correct. To boost
security one-time random passwords can be used. One benefit of a one-time
password system is that the user’s password is constantly changing.
Authentication is usually based on one of three different ways of
identification. Something the user knows- This is the knowledge of a unique
secret which is shared by certain parties. This can appear as a classic
password, PIN or an encryption. Something the user has- This can be the
physical possession of a unique item e.g. password tokens, hardware keys or
cards. Or something the user is- This involves the user’s physical
characteristic, e.g. voice or face recognition or a finger print scanner.
Authorisation- Authentication is how someone can enter a network, whereas this
is what the user can do/access once they have entered the network.
Authorisation differs from party to party, this is partly because certain users
such as cleaners wouldn’t need access the certain information like the pay
checks of all staff. Packet Filters- This way of security can be set up using a
router, a firewall and the servers

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