Global OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL PARAMETERS Different Physico-chemical parameters

warming is a great perl, the most pretentious areas are the coastlines of less developed
countries and India is one of them. Mainly, the deltas of river are facing the
brunt of climate change and these effects can be expected to rise with a pace in
the course of this century.The Sunderban Rainforest are one of the region
in India having a great threat.

The Sunderbans is the
world’s stupendous mangrove forest. Designated as a United Nations World
Heritage site in both India and Bangladesh, it covers nearly 4,000
square miles (10,000 square kilometers). The forest provides home to the Bengal
tiger, as well as other rare and endangered species of aquatic mammals, birds and

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mangrove ecosystem, (between 21032’–220 40′ North and between 880 85’–89000
East) is an unique, productive and highly valued ecosystem in terms of economy,
environment and ecology (Chakraborty, 2011). Although, mangroves of India
account for only 0.67% of the total designated forest area of the country,
their presence remain utterly important under growing concern of global
reduction of mangrove habitats and need special attention. The Indian mangroves
contribute significantly towards the shrinking of global mangrove reserves with
approximately 2.7% of the world’s mangroves those exist along the 7516.6km long
coastline of India (Giri et al.,2011). Several conservation strategies have
been adopted to protect Indian mangroves in view of ongoing and persisting
ecological and anthropogenic threats.(Bhatt and Kathiresan, 2012). The
Sundarbans Mangrove Forest is particularly critical and a highly fragile ecosystem
because of its complexgeo-morphological and environmental settings, enormous
population density and gradual shrinking of the islands under the rising Sea
level (Das Gupta and Shaw, 2013).

OF BIODIVERSITY Field surveys, collection, and identification of floral and
faunal components during last two decades following standard literatures
(Chaudhuri and Choudhury 1994, Chakraborty, 2011, Giri and Chakraborty, 2012).
parameters of soil and water were analyzed following standard methods (APHA,
2005) and with the help of water quality checker (Towa, Model No. WQC 22A
Japan). Meteorological parameters (Rainfall, Temperature) of previous decades
were collected from the Indian Meteorological Department, Alipore, Kolkata
(Chakraborty et al.. 2009).

OFREMOTE SENSING AND GIS Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery has proven to be
effective in mapping temporal and spatial variations in environmental indicators
within large water bodies, as well as phyto-environment, pedological
characterization, land use/cover system etc. For land use/cover thematisation,
Optimum Index Factor (OIF) has been used for selecting the potential band
combination, which is based on the total variance within bands and correlation
coefficient between bands. The products of vegetation vis-s-vis forest cover
mapping derived from remotely sensed images are being objectively verified and
communicated in order to enable to chalk out proper strategies for sustainable
environmental management. However, the role of vegetation indices and textural
images improving land-cover classification performance is still poorly
understood, especially in moist tropical vegetated regions such as the Sundarbans
mangrove forest areas.

The Sundarban Biosphere Reserve which was
declared in 1989 is one of the three greatest marine biosphere reserves in the
country. The main objective of the marine biosphere reserve is protection,
conservation and judicious utilization of the marine environment. The
Sundarbans Project Tiger and National Park and the three Wildlife Sanctuaries i.e
Sajnekhali Wildlife Sanctuary, Lothian Island Sanctuary, Haliday Island
Sanctuary are located within the biosphere reserve. The other areas in the reserve
are habitations and cultivated fields. People living in these forest areas are
predominantly either fishermen or farmers. The Sundarban Biosphere Reserve has
been divided into two regions for effective management. They are the Sundarbans
Tiger Reserve under the Field Director (Gosaba) and D.F.O Parganas South


already threatened by poaching and habitat loss

In addition to climate change, the Sundarbans tigers, like
other tiger populations around the world already face tremendous threats from
poaching and habitat loss. Tiger ranges have fallen by 40 percent over the past
decade, and tigers today occupy less than seven percent of their original
range. Scientists fear that accelerating deforestation and rampant poaching
could push some tiger populations to the same fate as their now-extinct Javan
and Balinese relatives in other parts of Asia. 

Tigers are attacked for their body parts and highly prized
skins, which are used in traditional Chinese medicine. The 2010 Year of the
Tiger will mark an important year for conservation efforts to save wild tigers,
with WWF continuing to play a vital role in implementing bold new ideas to save
this magnificent Asian big cat.

The current and potential threats to both the
aquatic and terrestrial elements of the property are many. Largely effective
management of the Sundarbans National Park means that current threats to the
site are minimized. However, the Sundarbans National Park is part of the wider
Sundarbans ecosystem, and activities both within the site’s buffer zone and
within the wider Sundarbans and the Bay of Bengal provide cause for concern in
regards to the site’s Outstanding Universal Values. Future threats from sea
level rise and increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events
(storms and tidal surges) under climate change are severe. The site’s
ecological and biodiversity values are all affected by these pressures and the
Outstanding Universal Values of the site are therefore under serious threat in
the future.


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