Media and Cartoon Network are creating programs to attract

Media is a most
powerful tool in order to inform society in many topics. While it informs
people, also, it directs them by showing images and scenes (Erdo?an &
Alemdar, 1990). After the 20th century, television, as a part of media, widely
and quickly spread to the world (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2001).
In recent
times, children have turned television into a daily routine. Children’s
exposure to television begins with watching cartoons for two years and becomes
a television addict before they reach the sixth year. (Çapl?, 2002: 184).
Cartoons have the highest watching rates (Erdogan, Baran, 2008) and are the
most effective programs for children because of their visual and auditory
features (Oktay, 1999; Straker, 2006). Cartoon serves as a fun tool and at the
same time misinforms children in real life. Obviously, cartoon shows are a
profitable market for advertisers. As observed, most channels for children like
The Disney Channel, Nickelodeon and Cartoon Network are creating programs to
attract children (Becker, 2004), with programs such as Ben 10, Tom and Jerry and
the Adventure Times. These cartoons also include more violent scenes (Erdo?an
& Alemdar, 1990). As part of the US’ National Television Violence Study, children’s
TV programs were more violent than adults, showing 30 acts of violence per
hour. (Wilson, 2002).

The level of
violence shown in cartoons has the ability to create aggressive behaviors on
children instantaneously and for a certain period of time (Joy, Kimball &
Zabrack, 1986). Albert Bandura, in social learning theory, assumes that
children can gain aggressive behavior from watching characters on television. Theory
suggests that a person has the ability to attain behavior in the right way and
can influence the way he behaves in real life and what he sees in the mass
media. (Bandura, 1986). Children learn aggressive behaviors after viewing a violent
cartoon. Although the act of violence in the cartoon takes a short time, the
impact on the child is a long-term thing. (Huesman L.R., 1986). Children are
not negatively affected when their characters are exposed as heroes and are
also attracted to violence, and they can reproduce violent behavior on
television at the same time (Siegel, 1992: p.171). These characters can be
human or inhuman, cartoonist or visual in nature. (Gentile, Saleem, &
Anderson, 2007).  For example, children
who have been exposed to animation that include human-like figures hitting and biting
each other have prefer  to choose an
aggressive player (eg a hit baby) as opposed to a non-aggressive player (ie a
ball in a cage); in a bigger place than children who see a non-violent cartoon (Lovass,
1961). George Gerbner states that when someone is exposed to too much
television, they start to see it as real (1986). Cartoon shows the use of
weapons and violence as acceptable and justified solutions to complex problems (Dietz
& Strasburger, 1991). Children, therefore, see the media content they are
exposed as real life, and often imitate or multiply these facts. Research has
shown that children imitate what they see in Power Ranger that is video game,
therefore many day care centers, nursery schools, and elementary schools have
since prohibited playing Power Rangers (Simmons, Stalsworth, &
Wentzel, 1999). Cartoons affect the social and moral development of children in
the process of being a full-fledged member of the community of children, in the
process of socialization. Cartoons determine the level of violence and
aggression. After watching cartoons for a long time in his early life, the
child interprets some characters as role models (Kochanska G, 1993). Albert
Bandura believed that aggression was learned through a process called
behavioral modeling. He believed that children did not actually inherit the
violent tendencies, but they modeled them after three primitives (Bandura,
1976: p.204). Albert Bandura advocated aggressive behavior by observing others,
especially children, either personally or through the media and the environment.
Modeling is a very powerful tool to convey attitudes, values, behavioral and
thought patterns (Bandura, 1977). We can see many violent behaviors in cartoons
locally and foreign produced cartoons (Karasahin, 2015) and their effects on
children (Krish, 2006). For example, Tom and Jerry generally is not just a
cartoon running and catching each other but fighting and hurting each other.
Father and grandfather of Cedric have an argument and say bad things about each
other, just like in SpongeBob (Karasahin, 2015).  

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behaviors can differ according to characters and gender (Luther and Legg, 2010).
According to result of Eskandari’s research, 80% of female students and 91% of
male students sometimes or always choose models from cartoons for themselves
(Eskandari, 2007). Different genders have different positions in cartoons. Characters
are exposed and exposed to different behaviors according to their gender.
(England, 2011). Males are physically strong. They are hitting or moving
something. Evidence provides that the male character has a strong physical
influence on the person or object (Luther and Legg, 2010). Young boys show
signs of physical aggression. Males are more than three times as likely as
females to be the victims of violence involving the use of hands (Klein &
Shiffman, 2008). Female characters demonstrate social aggression more than male
characters (Luther & Leg, 2010). Most common reason underlying cartoon
characters’ violent behavior is anger. Revenge is the second most common
explanation for a character to show violent acts, inherent mean-spiritedness is
the third most common justification for violence, other causes of having these
behaviors may be self-defense, such as the act of jealousy resulting in greed,
gaining something, rescuing the property of another character or another
character (Klein & Shiffman, 2011).


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