P5: are hot, the hairs in our skin lie

P5: Explain the concept of homeostasis.

M2: Discuss the probable homeostatic response to changes in the internal environment during exercise.

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D2: Evaluate the importance of homeostasis in maintaining the healthy functioning of the body.

What is homeostasis?

Homeostasis is maintaining a constant internal environment. It refers to the ability of the body or a cell to seek and maintain a condition of stability within an internal environment when dealing with external changes. Our body temperature, blood sugar levels and water content need to be controlled. The nervous system and hormones are responsible for homeostasis. Homeostasis is about balance and the ways in which out body is balanced is

·         When we get hot our blood vessels supply blood to the skin which can either swell up or dilate (vasodilation). In order to control the temperature when we are hot, the hairs in our skin lie flat for heat to escape and our hair muscles relax. Also when we are there is an increase in blood flow in capillaries. Our sweat is secreted by our sweat glands

·         When we get cold our blood vessels supply warm blood to the skin become narrow or constricts (vasoconstriction). In order to control the temperature when we are cold, our hair muscles stand up. There is a decrease in blood flow in the capillaries and erect hair trap air.

·         An example of conditions where homeostasis needs to be balanced consists of what regulation, blood glucose, temperature, breathing and heart rate.

Negative feedback is a reaction and what Negative feedback does is decreases in. The negative feedback loops happen in our body to maintain temperature, blood sugar levels, PH, hormone levels and other internal variable levels. Negative feedback needs receptors to detect change.

Negative feedback as a form of regulation

An example of negative feedback is when we are hungry; our metabolism reduces down to preserve energy and to permit us to continue living with less food.

What is the importance of maintaining homeostasis?

It is important to maintain a constant internal environment because if they were not maintained then chemicals and enzymes wouldn’t function properly.  Homeostasis is also importanted to keep mechanisms balanced and example of these conditions being  balanced by homeostasis contain temperature, glucose levels, water levels/regulation, heart rate and breathing rate.

What happens to the body when we start exercise in relation to temperature, blood glucose, water levels, heart rate and breathing rate?

Temperature:  Controlled to maintain its body temperature which is 37 degrees and this is where enzymes who are biological catalyst work best. As we exercise more, the temperature increases, we breathe heavily because the body need as much oxygen to produce energy. When exercising, the temperature increases and homeostasis tries to maintain temperature when sweat is released as a waste product. To maintain homeostasis, the blood vessels in our skin increase to allow additional blood flow to the surface of our body.

Glucose levels: blood glucose is regulated by two opposing hormones which is glucagon and insulin the hormone insulin which is produced in the pancreases which facilitates glucose transport into cells. During a long exercise, there is an increase in demand for glucose by contracting muscle causes to increase glucose uptake to working skeletal muscle. This review focuses on factors that control blood glucose homeostasis during long exercise.

Water levels /regulations: Water levels need to be controlled in the body. Skin losses water in sweat, the lungs help control water when we are hot by losing water when we inhale and kidney produces urine to loss water and to get rid of harmful chemicals.

Heart rate: Our heart rate increase and decrease our heart rate due to our body’s requirements. During Exercise, heart rate increases because the brain transmits electrical impulses to our heart. When we stop exercising than our heart rate slows down and tries to return to normal. There is increase in production of cellular wastes such as carbon dioxide and lactic acid when exercising and or body produces lactic acid when there is no oxygen, so our body needs to return to normal when we stop exercising due to homeostasis. Our cardiovascular (which supplies blood to the rest of the body) system maintains homeostasis between the delivery of oxygen and nutrients and the removal of cellular wastes by increasing your heart rate.

Breathing rate: when exercising, our breathing rate increases to get more oxygen and to get rid of carbon dioxide. Also lactic acid levels rise much less than they do in an unfit person. When exercising is the muscles respire as it uses the energy to perform the exercise? Also, breathing rate increases because it tries to pump as much oxygen around the body as it can. The respiratory system is to pump oxygen around the body but when we exercise we breathe heavily and our breathing rate increases until we stop exercising. The breathing decreases as we are not using a lot of energy when we rest.

What happens to the body during exercise?

During exercise, the body starts to produce sweat which helps to release heat from the body. Also the muscles in our body contract as the muscles contain mitochondria for respiration which release energy. We start to breathe heavily because there is a demand on oxygen and the blood pumps faster and faster around the body. The heart beats faster so it pumps blood to the muscles. The energy that is used in exercise starts to get depleted because there is a large amount of energy being released quicker than when resting. The body starts to run out of energy and the body builds up in lactic acid and there is an increase demand on oxygen. Homeostasis in the respiratory system helps to remove carbon dioxide and water from the body so it allows us to breathe easily when exercising.

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