RADIATION X-Rays in diagnostic medicine. Multiple narrow beams are

RADIATION – THE INVISIBLE SCOUTS

By: Naintara Jain, Sucharita Sen

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X -Rays

On November 8th, 1895, in his laboratory in Würzburg University in
Germany, professor Wilhelm Conrad Röentgen noticed a fluorescent glow of crystals kept
near a cathode ray tube. The fluorescence continued even after he covered the
tube with black paper. Röentgen
concluded that the cathode ray tube was emitting an unknown
radiation, which could penetrate through paper and excite fluorescent
materials. Further study showed that the energy emission could pass through
most opaque objects, including soft tissue of humans, but not highly dense
materials like bones and metal objects. One of the initial experiments performed
to study X Rays was actually a radiograph of Röentgen’s wife’s hand, who, on seeing the film,
declared “I have seen my death!” Röentgen
called the energy emission “X-Radiation”, where ‘X’ refers to the unknown
variable used in mathematics. This Radiation is today known as X-Ray, an
electromagnetic emission which has redefined medical diagnostics and found
various industrial applications.

 

The discovery created a frenzy in the
scientific world and media alike. Scientists were fascinated by the
possibilities opened up by the discovery of an electromagnetic emission with a
shorter wavelength than light, and its implications for understanding the
structure of matter. The public was enthralled by the idea of an invisible ray
which could give pictures of bones and body parts.World War I saw the use of
X-Rays on the battlefield to locate bullet wounds in soldiers as early as June
1896, only six months after Röentgen’s
discovery. His discovery was highly acclaimed and he was awarded the first
Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.

 

Today, X-Rays have become the backbone of
medical diagnostics. The emissions can pass through most tissues, but are
obstructed by the dense matrix of the bones and teeth. X-Ray imaging can detect
broken bones, identify cavities in teeth and even detect breast cancer in
women. Computerised Axial Tomography, or CAT Scans, are a relatively new
application of X-Rays in diagnostic medicine. Multiple narrow beams are used at
different angles to scan a specific region of the body, and a computerised
image of the cross section of the region is obtained.

 

X-Rays are also used as treatment for cancer.
The radiation is capable of killing cells, a property exploited in radiation
therapy to eradicate malignant cells while trying to avoid damage to other
healthy tissues. Ironically, X-Ray exposure can also cause cancer, along with a
battery of side effects such as hair loss, skin lesions and reddening of skin.
Clarence Madison Dally, an assistant to Thomas Edison, died as a result of
direct X-Ray exposure, leading to cancer of the hand. The event led to Edison
abandoning all his research into X-Rays and claiming, “Don’t talk to me about X-Rays. I’m afraid of
them.”

 

X-Rays are also used in non destructive
elemental analysis. Each element emits X-Rays of characteristic energy, which
can be measured and thus used to identify that element. This technique is now
as X-Ray Fluorescence analysis. Not only is it used by chemists, but also by
forensic scientists during criminal investigations.Synchrotron
radiation, the intense X-Rays emitted by a particle accelerator called
Synchrotron, is used by scientists to study the arrangements of atoms in
compounds. Synchrotron radiation also finds applications in X-Ray lithography,
manufacturing high density integrated circuits.

 

In the Industry, X-Rays are often used to find
faults in machines and infrastructure in a non destructive manner, such as
checking pipelines and buildings for structural faults and even car engines for
any defects. X-Rays also find use for security purposes. They are used to scan
baggage or people for guns and other illegal objects.

 

 

 

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Nuclear magnetic resonance
spectroscopy explores the magnetic properties of the nuclei of certain
atoms. From an instrumental point of view, it relies on the phenomenon of
nuclear magnetic resonance, which can provide a wide range of information,
including structure, reaction state, and chemical environment. Molecules
containing at least one atom with a nonzero magnetic moment are potentially
detectable by NMR, such isotopes including 1H, 13C, 14N, 15N,
and 31 P. These signals are
characterized by their frequency (chemical shift), intensity, fine structure,
and magnetic relaxation properties, all of which reflect the environment of the
detected nucleus. NMR is the analytical method that provides the most
comprehensive structural information, including stereochemical detail.

 

Nuclear
magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) has a long history that reaches back
to 1945 when the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance was experimentally
verified in condensed matter for the first time. After successful applications
of NMR in analytical chemistry, structural biology, and initial magnetic
resonance imaging (MRI) trials, localized in vivo magnetic resonance
spectroscopy (MRS) was finally introduced during the 1980s. It has evolved
during the past 25 years in terms of localization quality, spatial resolution,
acquisition speed, number of detectable metabolites, and quantification
precision, and has profited especially from the significant increase of
magnetic field strength that recently became available for in vivo investigations.
Today it allows for non-invasive determination of tissue concentrations of
various metabolites and compounds in animals or humans and is applied for
clinical diagnostics as well as physiological research.

  NMR in
diagnosis of Epilepsy

Nuclear
magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive method for
detecting brain metabolites. MRS has been applied to the study of human disease
for several decades. It has advanced the study of neurological disorders by
providing a metabolic biopsy of the living brain. Although a large number of
metabolites and enzymatic pathways can be studied with MRS, two main techniques
have been applied to study epilepsy. The most common one is 1H-MRS,
in which compounds such as N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho),
creatine (Cr), myoinositol, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glutamate are
detected. The second technique employs phosphorus (31P), which
provides information about the energetics of human tissue. Today,
clinical 1 H-MRS can be carried out in routine MR scanners
and at high field in research settings.

 

 SOURCES

Critical Moments in X-ray History You Need to Know

https://www.livescience.com/32344-what-are-x-rays.html

A brief history of the X-Ray

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/german-scientist-discovers-x-rays

https://www.nde-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Radiography/Introduction/history.htm

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2843924/

http://science.jrank.org/pages/7433/X-Rays-Applications-x-rays.htmlRADIATION – THE INVISIBLE SCOUTS

By: Naintara Jain, Sucharita Sen

X -Rays

On November 8th, 1895, in his laboratory in Würzburg University in
Germany, professor Wilhelm Conrad Röentgen noticed a fluorescent glow of crystals kept
near a cathode ray tube. The fluorescence continued even after he covered the
tube with black paper. Röentgen
concluded that the cathode ray tube was emitting an unknown
radiation, which could penetrate through paper and excite fluorescent
materials. Further study showed that the energy emission could pass through
most opaque objects, including soft tissue of humans, but not highly dense
materials like bones and metal objects. One of the initial experiments performed
to study X Rays was actually a radiograph of Röentgen’s wife’s hand, who, on seeing the film,
declared “I have seen my death!” Röentgen
called the energy emission “X-Radiation”, where ‘X’ refers to the unknown
variable used in mathematics. This Radiation is today known as X-Ray, an
electromagnetic emission which has redefined medical diagnostics and found
various industrial applications.

 

The discovery created a frenzy in the
scientific world and media alike. Scientists were fascinated by the
possibilities opened up by the discovery of an electromagnetic emission with a
shorter wavelength than light, and its implications for understanding the
structure of matter. The public was enthralled by the idea of an invisible ray
which could give pictures of bones and body parts.World War I saw the use of
X-Rays on the battlefield to locate bullet wounds in soldiers as early as June
1896, only six months after Röentgen’s
discovery. His discovery was highly acclaimed and he was awarded the first
Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.

 

Today, X-Rays have become the backbone of
medical diagnostics. The emissions can pass through most tissues, but are
obstructed by the dense matrix of the bones and teeth. X-Ray imaging can detect
broken bones, identify cavities in teeth and even detect breast cancer in
women. Computerised Axial Tomography, or CAT Scans, are a relatively new
application of X-Rays in diagnostic medicine. Multiple narrow beams are used at
different angles to scan a specific region of the body, and a computerised
image of the cross section of the region is obtained.

 

X-Rays are also used as treatment for cancer.
The radiation is capable of killing cells, a property exploited in radiation
therapy to eradicate malignant cells while trying to avoid damage to other
healthy tissues. Ironically, X-Ray exposure can also cause cancer, along with a
battery of side effects such as hair loss, skin lesions and reddening of skin.
Clarence Madison Dally, an assistant to Thomas Edison, died as a result of
direct X-Ray exposure, leading to cancer of the hand. The event led to Edison
abandoning all his research into X-Rays and claiming, “Don’t talk to me about X-Rays. I’m afraid of
them.”

 

X-Rays are also used in non destructive
elemental analysis. Each element emits X-Rays of characteristic energy, which
can be measured and thus used to identify that element. This technique is now
as X-Ray Fluorescence analysis. Not only is it used by chemists, but also by
forensic scientists during criminal investigations.Synchrotron
radiation, the intense X-Rays emitted by a particle accelerator called
Synchrotron, is used by scientists to study the arrangements of atoms in
compounds. Synchrotron radiation also finds applications in X-Ray lithography,
manufacturing high density integrated circuits.

 

In the Industry, X-Rays are often used to find
faults in machines and infrastructure in a non destructive manner, such as
checking pipelines and buildings for structural faults and even car engines for
any defects. X-Rays also find use for security purposes. They are used to scan
baggage or people for guns and other illegal objects.

 

 

 

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Nuclear magnetic resonance
spectroscopy explores the magnetic properties of the nuclei of certain
atoms. From an instrumental point of view, it relies on the phenomenon of
nuclear magnetic resonance, which can provide a wide range of information,
including structure, reaction state, and chemical environment. Molecules
containing at least one atom with a nonzero magnetic moment are potentially
detectable by NMR, such isotopes including 1H, 13C, 14N, 15N,
and 31 P. These signals are
characterized by their frequency (chemical shift), intensity, fine structure,
and magnetic relaxation properties, all of which reflect the environment of the
detected nucleus. NMR is the analytical method that provides the most
comprehensive structural information, including stereochemical detail.

 

Nuclear
magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) has a long history that reaches back
to 1945 when the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance was experimentally
verified in condensed matter for the first time. After successful applications
of NMR in analytical chemistry, structural biology, and initial magnetic
resonance imaging (MRI) trials, localized in vivo magnetic resonance
spectroscopy (MRS) was finally introduced during the 1980s. It has evolved
during the past 25 years in terms of localization quality, spatial resolution,
acquisition speed, number of detectable metabolites, and quantification
precision, and has profited especially from the significant increase of
magnetic field strength that recently became available for in vivo investigations.
Today it allows for non-invasive determination of tissue concentrations of
various metabolites and compounds in animals or humans and is applied for
clinical diagnostics as well as physiological research.

  NMR in
diagnosis of Epilepsy

Nuclear
magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive method for
detecting brain metabolites. MRS has been applied to the study of human disease
for several decades. It has advanced the study of neurological disorders by
providing a metabolic biopsy of the living brain. Although a large number of
metabolites and enzymatic pathways can be studied with MRS, two main techniques
have been applied to study epilepsy. The most common one is 1H-MRS,
in which compounds such as N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho),
creatine (Cr), myoinositol, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glutamate are
detected. The second technique employs phosphorus (31P), which
provides information about the energetics of human tissue. Today,
clinical 1 H-MRS can be carried out in routine MR scanners
and at high field in research settings.

 

 SOURCES

Critical Moments in X-ray History You Need to Know

https://www.livescience.com/32344-what-are-x-rays.html

A brief history of the X-Ray

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/german-scientist-discovers-x-rays

https://www.nde-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Radiography/Introduction/history.htm

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2843924/

http://science.jrank.org/pages/7433/X-Rays-Applications-x-rays.html

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